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The Craftsman; or London Intelligencer


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The Craftsman; or London Intelligencer

Very Rare Revolutionary War Newspaper Scrapbook (cuttings pasted onto existing newspaper) includes details of surrender of General Burgoyne and terms of surrender
Date of Article: 20/12/1777
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rr [ Price Three- pence, The Craftsman; or, London Intelligencer-- SATURDAY, DECEMBER 20, 1777. Extract of a Letter from Glasgow, Dec. 19. " Since my last I have seen several letters from New- York, one of which mentions the arrival of a transport from the Delaware, on the 19th ult. with advice, that the British seamen stormed Mud Island sword in hand, with the marines, while at the same time the English grenadiers, with the 42d regiment, stormed Red Bank, where, it is said, our loss was very inconsiderable, but the slaughter of the rebels was dreadful. It ap- pears, Mr. Washington had thrown a vast number of troops into these places, in order to render them impregnable, but they met a hard fate. It is confidently asserted, that all our ships are got to Philadelphia ; and that the lower counties supply the town plentifully with provisions ;— 5000 men had gone round to join Gen. Howe— 1 ExtraCt of a letter from Mr. De Crosne, Intendant of Roan, to Mr. Necker, Director General of the Finances of France, Dec. 17, 1777. . « The 21st of August last, about nine o'clock . at night, a vessel from Rochelle, laden with salt, with eight hands and two passengers on ; board, was blown towards the breakers of Dieppe. . The wind blew so hard and the sea was so vio- lently agitated, that a coasting pilot could not ; get out to bring her safe into port, though he | attempted it four different times. Another pilot, named Boussard, a man of courage and resolution, perceiving that the helmsman was steering a wrong course, which would expose the ship to almost inevitable destruction, endeavoured . by signals and a speaking trumpet to set him . right; but the darkness of the night, the whistling of the winds, and the roaring of the waves, pre- vented the Captain from either seeing of hearing,. what if seen or heard might have saved his vessel, which soon run aground, about thirty fathom beyond the breakers. !• " Struck with the cries of the unfortunate crew, who were just going to perish, Boussard formed the generous resolution to carry them assistance at the risque of his life : he was deaf to the restronstrances of his friends, who repre- sented to him the impossibility of success; aod sent away his wife and children, who endeavoured, to divert him from his design. He tied a rope round his body, fastened the end of it to the pier, and plunged into the sea, to carry another rope; to the vessel: when he had got near her a wave bore him away, and left him on the shore : his was thus borne back twenty times, after as many' efforts to gain the ship : his ardour however was not in the least abated, though he was severely hurt by being rolled violently upon the beach:' He leaped again, in to the sea : a wave carried him under the vessel; he was then thought lost; but he soon appeared again holding in his arms a sailor, who had been washed off deck, and whom he brough motionless and almost without life to land. " He after numberless efforts reached the ship threw the rope he carried; on the deck : such of the crew as had still strength sufficient left, tied themselves to it, and were drawn safe to shore. ' Boussard now thought that he had saved the whole crew , overcome with fatigue, his body all over bruised, he went with difficulty to the hut, where the people had placed the unhappy men, who had through his means escaped death • there he grew so faint, that he fell down and swooned away. Some helps were administered to him ; he threw up the salt water he had swal- lowed; and he was just recovering his spiritS, when he was told that groans were still heard from the ship ; he instantly broke from the arms of the people that were assisting him, ran down to the sea, plunged again into it, and was happy enough to save another man, one of the passen- gers, who lashed himself to a part of the ship, but had not had strength enough to get off when the crew escaped by means of the rope. " Out of the ten persons who had been on board two only perished, and their bodies Were found the next morning : the other eight owed their lives to the intrepidity and humanity of Boussard. DE CROSNE; " Mr. Necker having communicated the contents of the above letter to the King, and taken his Majesty's orders, writ the following letter with his own hand to the pilot of Dieppe: ' BRAVE MAN, • It was only the day before yesterday that I received an account from the Intendant, of the courageous action you performed the 31st of August; and I yesterday laid it before his Majesty, who commanded me to express to you the satisfaction he felt at reading it; and to in- form you that your behaviour has appeared to him in so amiable a light, that he has ordered you a gratification of 1000 livres, and settled oa you an annual pension of 300. I write in con- sequence of this to the Intendant. Con- tinue to give every succour in your power to those who may stand in need of it, and offer up your prayers daily for your good King, who loves brave men, and feels himself happy at having an opportunity to reward them. paris, Dec. 22,1777. NECKER' Director General of the Finances. " The young Monarch's conduct in the above affair does him no less honour, than Boussard's humanity does to himself and his country. Hapy would it be for subjects, if their Kings always gave away the public money for such purposes." ' Extract of another Letter from a gcntlemean dated; Camp on Bemus's Heights, Oct 9, 1777. » • With the greatest pleasure I ean inform you of our having a most severe action on the 7th inst. Our army drove Britons and Germans from the field into their works; but not being content with the honour of that, attacked their lines in the face of cannon and showers of mus- quetry, drove them from their works, took 9 pieces of brass artillery, 300 prisoners, among whom are 6 or 1 field officers, viz. I German Colonel, 2 Lieutenant Colonels, both since dead ; Major Williams commandant of Britilh artillery ; 2 Brunswick Majors ; Sir Francis Clark, Aid de Camp to General Burgoyne. The encampment of a German brigade, with all their equipage, fell into the hand, of Col. Jackson's regiment. this is a short but as good an account as I can give of the matter at present. Thus ended the most capital affair the history of this war can produce. The enemy prepared yesterday for a retreat— this morning we find they are gone leaving the sick and wounded, officers and men, in their camp. We shall march in half an hour in pursuit of them. They lost Gen. Fraser in the last action, besides many others. You can't conceive the bravery and spirit of our troops. Our loss was very trifling ; we lost double the number of any other regiment, and had but 2 officers, and 8 or 10 men killed on the spot, and one officer, and 15 men wounded. We left no field officer, nor that I can learn a Captain. Gen. Arnold entered the works, and immediate- iy received a ball in his leg. Yesterday Gen. Lincoln received an unfortunate wound in his leg from a random shot of the enemy, his leg is to be taken off. I am in haste, being just going to mount for the pursuit." * The Honourable Continental Congress have removed from Philadelphia to York Town, in the Northern- part of that State. , " BOSTON GAZETTE, October 20, 1777. ExtraCt of a letter from a General Officer, dated Camp at Saratoga, Oct. 13, 1777. " I received your esteemed favour of the 7th, and notice the contents, but cannot fully answer it at present. In my last I gave yOu an account of the action of the 7th, since which there has been skirmishing every day, in which we have taken great quantities of baggage, provisions, & c. prisoners about 120; deserters 160. The enemy have burnt every house but one, between their last encampment and the ground they now occupy, which is on the other side of Saratoga Creek. We now lie within musket shot of them, and are forming a circle round thetn ; and if the plan succecds, shall have it complete in one night more. The . Generals Lincoln and Arnold are both in a fine way, and keep their legs yet. The total destruction of General Burgoyne is very near, and with the blessing Oi S- i. - i pleat; we have nothing to do but to act with prudence and firmness." ExtraCt of a letter from Albany, dated Oct. 14, 1777. " I this moment received advice from the camp, that a party of our men have taken fifty . batteaux of the enemy, loaded with provisions, stores and medicines." Extract of a letter from Saratoga, OCt. 13, 1777. " Yesterday General Fellows, bring on the . other side of the river, took a number of boats from the enemy, loaded with provisions, con- sisting of near 1000 barrels of pork and beef; together with three hogsheads of beaver hats, & c. See." The following twelve gentlemen voted on Wednesday in the House of Commons for the repeal of the Declatory Act: Nathaniel Bayly, Esq; Member for Westbury. ' Frederick Bull, Esq; Member for London. John Cooper, Esq; Member for Downton. Henry Cruger, Esq; Member for Bristol. Thomas Coventry, Esq; Member for Bridport. John Glynn, Esq; Member for Middlesex. William Hussey, Esq Member for New Sarum. Temple Luttrell, Esq; Member for Milborne Port. Joshua Mauger, Esq; Member for Poole. Sir Joseph Mawbey, Bart. Member for Surry. Richard Oliver, Esq; Member for London. John Wilkes, Esq; Member for Middlesex. The Proudfoot, Trew, and jamaica Packet, Humphreys, from Granada; and Nancy, Hooper, from St. Vincents, all for London, are taken by the Americans, and carried into Boston. The Betsey, Grant, from Halifax, for Que- bec, is taken by the Americans, in the Gut of Canso. Yesterday morning the Rev. Mr. Russen, for a rape, ( attended by the Rev. Mr. Villette, Ordi- nary of Newgate, the Rev. Mr. Simmouds, Cu- rate of Aldersgate Church, and another Gentle- man,) was carried from Newgate in a mourning coach, and Morris Geary, 0n a sledge, for coin- ing ; to Tyburn, where they were executed pur- suant to their respective sentences.— Mr. Russen seemed to have a very proper idea of his ap- proaching dissolution. On thursday he desired that a Clergyman might remain with him during the last night, in order to afford him spiritual , comfort. This was complied with. Before and after rcceiving the Holy sacrament yesterday, he prayed with great fervency, and particularly for those whom he considered as his enemies. Just before he left the jail he used this empha- tical expression, " Stand clear, look to yourselves, I am the first hypocrite in Sion," and observed, that he regarded with perfect indifference the fear of death, though he lamented the necessity of leaving the world as an evil doer. The parting between him and his son ( a lad of fifteen years) was truly moving and affecting ; and his behavi- our to the last was such as became his unhappy si- tuation. At a very numerous meeting of the Common Council, at the Half Moon Tavern, the fol lowing resolution was carried in the affirmative, by a very great majority : " It is the opinion of this meeting, that any " encouragement, by rewards, bounties, or " otherwise, to soldiers or seamen, to act in " the present ruinous and destructive war, is at " this time premature, and ought to be op- " posed." Another account says, that last night the pa- triotic and ministerial phalanx, severally held a council of deliberation 6n the proceedings of this day, in the Court of Common Council, res- pecting a proposed subscription, to furnish his Ma- jesty with a body of troops, to serve in America the ensuing campaign. At the Half Moon, in Cheapside, Robert Holder, Esq; headed the op- position - T and at the White Hart, in Bishopsgate- street, Thomas Wellings, Esq; was the chief of a choice body of troops, under the banner of the Association. Though the whole corps were in- vited, there were not more than forty attended. The business was conducted with as much degree of secrecy and suspicion, as the conspiracy of Ca- tiline, and no person, whose countenance was dis- liked by the Chairman, was permitted to remain. , At the Half Moon, the assembly amounted in number to near a hundred, and it was resolved, to oppose all means of continuing the present un- just and pernicious war; and on the other hand, the few associated friends at the White Hart, de- termined to push the proposal with all the private influence in their power. MONDAY, December 15. LONDON. The American Congress have appointed Tho- mas ConWay, Esq; Knight of the Order of St. Louis, and Colonel of the Irish Brigades in the service, of the King of France, to the rank of Major General. And the Chevalier De Borre, also from France, to the rank of Brigadier Gene- ral. The latter has served in the armies of France with great reputation upwards of 36 years. By a late resolution of the Congress, great compliments are paid to the bravery and activity of General Arnold in Canada. The resolution says, that some particulars of the General's con- duct were confirmed by Mr. Carrol, late one ol the Commissioners to Canada, and now one ot the moderation shewn by the Americans in the terms granted to General Burgoyne's army, is universally admired and commended. This humanity to a fallen, prostrate enemy, who had boasted of his powers, and his cruelties, ought to put our Court and Officers to the blush. If we have yet fo far recovered our senses, as to be sensible of shame, a moment's reflection will con- vince us, the Americans are not those cowards fools, & c. that Lord Sandwich, General Grant' and others, represented them. Humanity be- longs to the brave, and cruelty to the coward. After burning their towns, ravishing and but- chering their wives and daughters, and employ- ing the Indians to torture and scalp them, they shew us mercy, when we are in their power They do not; like Howe, when at Long Island put the vanquished to the bayonet; nor like Vaughan, and others, put every man to death, because he differs in political sentiments: Gene- ral Howe himself experienced their humanity at Boston, ' The Ministers are greatly divided in their ideas of carrying on the American war. Part are for a sea War, part for going on as they are, and part for reinforcing the army, and sending for Duke Ferdinand to command it. ° On Thursday next will be issued from the Pay- Office Whitehall, 183 days off reckonings to his Majesty s land forces, from the zjth of June 1776, to the 24th of December following, both days inclusive. THE inhabitants of Philadelphia who were con- fined in the Free- Masons Lodge there, on their receiving a copy of the order for removing them to Staunton, in Virginia, drew up the fol- lowing Protest, which has been printed at Philadel- phia. " AS we consider this to be the highest act of tyranny that has been exercised in any age or coun- try where the shadow of liberty was left, we have in the following manner entered our protest against their proceedings: To the President and Council of Pennsylvania.. The Remonstrance and Protest of the Subscribers, Sheweth THAT your resolve of this day was this after- noon delivered to us; which is the more unexpect- ed, as last evening your Secretary informed us you had referred our business to Congress, to whom we' were about further to apply. In this resolve, contrary to the inherent rights of mankind, you condemn us to banishment unheard. You determine matters concerning us, which we could have disproved, had our right to a hearing been granted. The charge against us, of refusing " to promise to refrain from corresponding with the enemy," in- sinuates that we have already held such correspond- ence, which we utterly and solemnly deny. The tests you proposed we were by no law bound to subscribe, and notwithstanding our refusing them, we are still justly and lawfully entitled to all the rights of citizenship, of which you are attempting to deprive us. We have never been suffered to come before you to evince our innocence, and remove suspicions which you have laboured to instill into the minds of others, and at the same time knew to be ground- less, although Congress recommended it to you to give us a hearing, and your President this morning assured two of our friends we should have it. In vindication of our characters, we who are of the people called Quakers, are free to declare, that, * " Although at the time many of our forefathers were convinced of the truth which we their descen- dants now profess, great fluctuations, and various changes and turnings happened in Government, and they were greatly vilified and persecuted for a firm and steady adherence to their peaceable and inoffensive principles; yet they were preserved from any thing tending to promote insurrections, conspiracies, or the shedding of blood ; and during the troubles, which, by permission of Divine Providence, have latterly prevailed, we have steadily maintained our religious principles in these respects, and have not . held any correspondence with the contending par- ties, as is unjustly insinuated, but are with held and restrained from being concerned in such matters, by that Divine principle of Grace and Truth, which we profess to be our guide and rule through life. this is of more force and obligation than all the tests and declarations devised by men." " And we, who are of the Church of England, are free to declare to you and the world, that we never have at any time, during the present controversy, either directly or indirectly, communicated any intelligence whatever to the commander of the' British forces, or any other person concerned in public affairs; and with the same chearfulness we would have engaged not to hold any such correspondence in future, had not the requisition been coupled with ignominious and illegal restrictions, subjecting us to become pri soners within the walls of our own dwellings, and to surrender ourselves to the President and Council on demand. This the clear consciousness of our own innocence absolutely forbad us to accede to." Upon the whole, your proceedings have been so arbitrary, that words are wanting to express our sense of them. We do therefore, as the last office we expect you will now suffer us to perform for the benefit of our country, in behalf of ourselves, and those freemen of Pennsylvania, who still have any regard to liberty, solemnly remonstrate and protest against your whole conduct, in this unrea- sonable excess of power exercised by you. That the evil and destructive spirit of pride, am- bition, and arbitrary power with which you have been actuated, may cease, and be no more; and that peace on earth, and good - will to men, may happily take place thereof in your and all men's minds, is the sincere desire of your oppressed and in- jured fellow- citizens. Israel Pemberton, John Hunt, Thomas Wharton,. Edward Pennington, Thomas Coombe, Henry Drinker, Thomas Fisher, Samuel Pleasants, Samuel R. Fisher, Owen Jones, jun. Thomas Gilpin, James Pemberton,. John Pemberton,, Phineas Bond, Charles Jarvis, Thomas Affleck, William D. Smith, Thomas Pike, William Smith, Broker, Elijah Brown, Charles Eddy, Miers Fisher, We are assured that an express arrived on sa- turday, with advice that General Vaughan had surrendered to Putnam, after some sharp mishes, with upwards of four thousand men His corps had consisted, originally, of five thou- sand. The remainder had been slain upon the North River, in the actions previous to his sur- render. . Private letters by the last French mail men- tion, that the American Commissioners at had received advice, that General Washington having been reinforced by large bodies of troops from the neighbouring provinces, had made general assault on General Howe's lines which they had forced after an obstinate defence the number of the royalists, killef, Wounded and prisoners amounts to 7000 ; the remainder had with great difficulty got on board their ships and it was supposed they were sailed to New York Dr. Franklin also gives out, that General Vaughan and his whole corps are made prisoners ; and that General Burgoyne had disdained to Burgoyne's people had eat up all their horses before they surrendered,' such extremities had they been driven to for want of food it having been represanted State that there was great reason to apprehend the populace was so irritated against the two grave- diggers who were ordered to be twice publicaly whipped for stealing dead bodies' that they would Wednesdayy December 17. The following is the WHOLE of the AMERICAN INTELLI- GENCE contained in the LON- DON GAZETTE, which was published early this Morning. The LONDON GAZETTE, published by Authority. TUESDAY, December 16, 1777. Whitehall, December 15, 1777. tHIS afternoon Captain Craig, of the 47th regiment, arrived from Quebec with the following duplicate of a letter from Lieutenant General Burgoyne, to Lord George Germain, the original of which has not yet been received. Albany, October 20, 1777. My Lord, NO possibility of communication with your Lordship having existed since the beginning of September, at which time my last dispatches were sent away, I have to report to your Lord- ship the proceedings of the army under my com mand from that period ;— a series of hard toil, incessant effort, stubborn action, till disabled in the collateral branches of the army by the total defection of the Indians ; the desertion or the ti- midity of the Canadians and Provincials, some individuals excepted ; disappointed in the last hope cf any timely co- operation from other the armies; the regular troops reduced by losses from the best parts, to 3,500 fighting men, not 2ooo of which were British ; only three days provi- sions, upon short allowance, in store ; invested by an army of sixteen thousand men, and no ap- parent means of retreat remaining; I called into Council all the Generals, Field Officers, and Cap- tains, commanding corps, and by their unani- mous concurrence and advice, I was induced to open a treaty with Major General Gates. Your Lordship will see by the papers transmit- ted herewith the disagreeable prospect which at tended the first overtures, and when the terms concluded are compared, I trust that the spirit of the Councils I have mentioned, which, under such circumstances, dictated, instead of submit- ting, will not be refused a share of credit. Before I enter upon the detail of these events, I think it duty of justice, my Lord, to take upon myself the measure of having passed the Hudson's River, in order to force a passage to Albany. I did not think myself authorised to call any men into council, when the peremptory tenor of my orders, and the season of the year, admitted no alternative. Provisions for about thirty days having been brought forward, the other necessary stores pre- pared, and the bridge of boats compleated, the army passed the Hudson's River on the 13th and 14th of September, and encamped on the heights and in the Plain ot Saratoga, the enemy being then in the neighbourhood of Still- water. 15th. The whole army made a movement for- ward, and encamped in a good position in " place called Dovogot. 16th. It being found that there were several bridges to repair, that work was begun under cover of strong detachments, and the same op- portunity was taken to reconnoitre the country 17th. The army renewed their march, repaired Other bridges, and encamped upon advantageous ground, about four miles from the enemy. 18th. The enemy appeared in considerable force to obstruct the further repair of bridges, and with a view, as it was conceived, to draw on an action where artillery could not be employed ; a small loss was sustained in skirmishing, but the work of the bridges was effected. 19th. The passages of a great ravine, and other roads towards the enemy, having been re- connoitred, the army advanced in the following order. Brigadier- General Fraser's corps, sustained by Lieutenant - Colonel Breyman's corps, made a circuit in order to pass the ravine commodiously, without quitting the heights, and afterwards to cover the march of the line ta the right; these corps moved in three columns, and had the In- dians, Canadians, and Provincials upon their fronts and flanks. The British line, led by me in person, passed the ravine in a direct line South, and formed in order of battle as fast as they gained the summit, where they waited to give time to Frazer's corps to make the circuit, . and to en- able the left wing and artillery, which, under the command of Major General Phillips and Ma- jor General Reidel 1 kept the great roads and meadows near the river, in two columns, and had bridges to repair, to be equally ready to pro- ceed. The 47th regiment guarded the batteaux The signal guns, which had been previously settled to give notice of all the columns being ready to advance, having been fired between one and two o'clock, the march continued, the scouts and flankers of the column of the British line were soon fired upon from small parties, but with no effect; after about an hour's march, the pi- quels, which made the advanced guard of that column, were attacked in force, and obliged to give ground, but they soon rallied and were " On the first opening of the wood, I formed the troops; a few cannon shot dislodged the enemy at at a house from whence the piquets had been at tacked ; and Brigadier General Fraser's corps had arrived with such precision in point of time, as to be found on a very advantageous height on the right of the British. . In the mean time the enemy, not acquainted with the combination of the march, had moved with great force out of their intrenchments, with a view ot turning the line upon the right; and be- ing checked by the position of Brigadier- General Fraser, countermarched in order to direct their great effort to the left of the British. From the nature of the country, movements of this nature, however near, may be effected with- out a possibility of their being discovered. About three o'clock the action began by a very rigorous attack on the British line, and continu- ed with great obstinacy till after sun set. The enemy being continually supplied with fresh troops the stress lay upon the 29th, 21st, and 62d regiments, most parts of which were engaged near four hours without intermission : The 9th had been ordered early in the day to form in reserve. The grenadiers and 24th regiment were some part ot the time brought into aftion, as were part of the light infantry; and all these corps charged with their usual spirit. The riflemen, and other parts of Brymen's corps,' were also of service; but it was not thought adviseable to evacuate the height where Briga- dier General Fraser was posted, otherwise than partially and occasionally. Major General Phillips, upon first hearing the firing, found his way through a difficult part of the wood to the scene. of action, and brought up with him Major Williams and four pieces of ar- tillery, and from that moment I stood indebted to that gallant and judicious second for incessant and most material services ; particularly for restoring the action in a point which was critically pressed by a great superiority of fire, and to which he led up the 20th regiment at the utmost personal hazard. Major General Reidesel exerted himself to bring up a part of the left wing, and arrived in time to charge the enemy with regularity and bravery. Just as the light closed, the enemy gave ground on all sides, and left us compleatly masters of the field of battle, with the loss of about 5oo men on their side, and, as supposed, thrice that number wounded. The darkness preventing a pursuit, the prison- ers were few The behaviour of the officers and men in gene- ral was exemplary. Brigadier- General Fraser took his position in the beginning of the day « ith great judgment, and sustained the action > ith constant presence of mind and vigour. Brigadier General Hamilton was the whole time engaged, and acquitted himself with great honour, activity, and good conduct. The artillery in general was distinguished, and the Brigade under Captain Jones, who was killed in the action, was conspi- cuously so. The army lay upon their arms the night of the 19th, and the next day took a position nearly within cannon shot of the enemy, fortifying their right, and extending their left so as to cover the meadows through which the great river runs, and where the batteaux and hospitals were placed. The 47th regiment, and the regiment of Hesse Hanau, with a corps of Provincials, encamped in the meadows as a further security. It was soon found that no fruits, honour excep- ted, were attained by the preceding victory ; the enemy working with redoubld ardor to strengthen their left; their right was unattackable already. On our side it became expedient to erect strong redoubts for the protection of the magazines and hospital ——. . also for their security in case of a march to turn the enemy's flank. 21 Lt. A messenger arrived from Sir Harry Clin- ton, with a letter in cyphers, informing me o; his intention to attack Fort Montgomery in about ten days from the date of his letter, which was the ! o: h of September. This was the only mes- senger of many that I apprehend were dispatched by Sir William Howe and him, that had reached my camp since the beginning of August. He was sent back the same night to inform Sir Harry cf my situation, and of the necessity of a division to oblige General Gates to detach from his army and my intention to wait favourable events in my position, if possible, to the 12th of October, In the course of the two following days, two officers in disguise, and other confidential person were dispatched by different routs with verbal messages to the same effect ; and I continued for- tifying my camp, and watching the enemy, whose numbers encreased everyday. 3d October. I thought it adviseable to diminish the soldiers ration, in order to lengthen out the provisions, to which meafure the army fubmitted With the utmost chearfulness. The difficulties of retreat to Canada were clearly foreseen, as was the dilemma, should the retreat be effected, of leaving at liberty such an army as General Gates's t0 act against Sir William Howe. This consideration operated forcibly to deter- mine me to abide events as long as possible, and I reasoned thus: The expedition I commanded was evidently meant at first to be hazarded. Cir cumstances might require it should be devoted ; a critical junction of Mr. Gates's force with Mr. Washington might possibly decide the fate of the war ; the failure of my junction with Sir Harry Clinton, or the loss of my retreat to Canada, could only be a partial misfortune. 7th. In this situation things continued ' till the 7th, when no intelligence having been received of the expested co- operation, and four or five days for our limited stay in the camp only re mained, it was judged advisable to make a move- ment to the enemy's left, not only to discover whether there were any possible means of forcing a passage, should it be necessary to advance, or of dislodging him for the convenience of retreat, but also to cover a forage of the army, which was in the greatell distress on account of the scarcity. A detachment of 1500 regular troops, ( with 2 12 pounders, 2 howitzers, and 6 six- pounders, were ordered to move, and was commanded by myself, having with me Major General Phillips, Major General Reidesel, and Brigadier General Fraser. The guard of the cainp upon the heights was left to Brigadiers General Hamilton and Speicht the redoubts and the plain to Brigadier General Goll; and as the force of the enemy immediately in their front consisted of more than double their numbers, it was not possible to aug- ment the corps that marched beyond the numbers ' above stated. I formed the troops within three quarters of a ' mile of the enemy's left; and Captain Fraser's Rangers, with Indians and Provincials, had orders to go by secret paths in the woods to gain the enemy's rear, and by shewing themselves there to keep them in check. The further operations intended were pre- vented by a very sudden and rapid attack of the enemy- on OUr left, where the British grenadiers were posted to support the left wing of the line. Major. Ackland at the head of them sustained the attack with great resolution ; but the enemy's great numbers enabling them in a few minutes to extend the attack along the frOnt of the Ger- mans, which were immediately on the right of the grenadiers, no part of that body could be removed to make a second line to the flank where the stress of the fire lay. The right was at that time unengaged ; but it was soon observed that the enemy were marching a large corps round their flank to endeavour cutting off their retreat. The light infantry and part of the 24th regiment, which were at that post, were therefore ordered to form a second line, and to secure the return of the troops into camp. While this movement was proceeding, the enemy pushed a fresh and strong reinforcement to renew the action upon the left, which, over- powered by so great a superiority, gave way, and the light infantry and 24th regiment were ob- liged to make a quick movement to save that point from being entirely carried, in doing which Brigadier General Fraser was mortally wounded, The danger to which the lines were exposed becoming at this moment of the most serious na- ture, orders were given to Majors General Phil- lips and Reidesel to cover the retreat, while such troops as were most ready for the purpose returned for the defence of them.. The troops retreated hard pressed, but in good order. They were ob- liged to leave 6 pieces of cannon, all the horses having been killed; and most of the artillery men, who had behaved as usual with the utmost bra- very, under the command of Major Williams, being either killed or wounded. The troops had scarcely entered the camp, when it was stormed with great fury, the enemy rushing to the lines under a severe fire of grape shot and small arms. The post of the light in- fantry under Lord Belcarres, assisted by some of the line, who threw themselves by order into those entrenchments, was defended with great spirit; and the enemy, led On by General Arnold, was finally repulsed, and the General wounded ; but unhappily the entrenchments of the German reserve, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Breymen, who was killed, were carried, and al- though ordered to be recovered, they never were so ; and the enemy by that misfortune gained an opening on our right and rear. The night put an end to the action. Under the disadvantages thus apparent in our situation, the army Was ordered to quit the pre- sent position during the night, and take post up- on the height above the hospital; thus, by an entire change of front, to reduce the enemy to form a new disposition. This was effected with great order and without loss, tho — - —... camp were removed at the same time. The army continued offering battle to the enemy in their new position the whole day of the 8th. Sth. Intelligence was now received that the enemy were marching to turn the right, and no means could prevent this measure but retiring towards Saratoga. The army began to move at nine o'clock ac night ; Major General Reidesel commanding the van- guard, and Major General Phillips the rear. This retreat, though within musquet- shot of the enemy, and encumbered with all the baggage of the army, was made without loss; but a very heavy rain, and the difficulties of guarding the batteaux which contained all the provisions, occa sioned delays, which prevented the army reaching Saratoga till the night of the 9th ; and the artil- lery could not pass the Fords of the Fishkill till the morning of the 10th. At our arrival near Saratoga, a corps of the enemy, of between five and six hundred, were discovered throwing up entrenchments on the heights, but retired over a ford of the Hudson's river at our approach, and joined a body posted to oppose our passage there. It was judged proper to send a detachment of artificers, under a strong escort, to repair the bridges and open a road to Fort Edward. The 47. h regiment, Capt. Fraser's marksmen, and Mackoy's Provincials were ordered for that ser- vice ; but the enemy appearing on the heights of the Fishkill in great force, aud making a dispo- sition to pass and give us battle, the 47th regi- ment and Fraser's marksmen were recalled T The Provincials left to cover the workmen at the 6Hl bridge, runaway upon a very slight attack of a small party of the enemy, and left the artificers to escape as they could, without a possibility of their performing any work. During these different movements, the batteaux with provisions were frequently fired upon from the opposite side of the river ; some of them were lost, and several men were killed and wounded in those which remained. 1 ith. Attacks upon the battcaux were conti- nued; several were taken and retaken; but their situation being much nearer to the main force of the enemy than to ours, it was found impossible to secure the provisions any otherwise than by land- ing them and carrying them upon the hill: This was effected under fire, and with great difficulty. The possible means of further retreat were now considered in Councils of War composed of the General officers, minutes of which will be trans- mitted to your Lordship. The only one that seemed at all practicable, was By a night march to gain Fort Edward, with the troops carrying their provifions upon their backs; the impossibility of repairing the bridge, putting a conveyance of artillery and carriages out ot the question ; and it was proposed to force the ford at Fort Edward, or the ford above it. Before this attempt could be made, scouts re- turned with intelligence that the enemy were in- trenched opposite those fords, and possessed a camp in force on the high ground between Fort Edward and Fort George, with cannon ; they had also par- ties down the whole shore to watch our motions; and posts so near to us upon our own side of the water as must prevent the army moving a single mile undiscovered. The bulk of the enemy's army was hourly join- ed by new corps of militia and volunteers, and their numbers together amounted to 16,000 men,. Their position, which extended three parts in four of a circle round us, was, from the nature of the ground, inattackable in all parts. In this situation the army took the best position possible and fortified; waiting till the 13th at night in the anxious hope of succours from our friends, or the next desirable expectation, an at- tack from our enemy. During this time the men lay continually upon their arms, and were cannonaded in every part; even rifle shot and grapeshot came into all parts of the line, though without any considerable effect. At this period an exact account of the provi- sions was taken, and the circumstances stated in the opening of this letter became compleat. The Council of War was extended 10 all the field officers and captains commanding corps of the army, and the convention inclosed herewith ensued ; a transaction which I am sure was una- voidable, an I which I trust in that situation will be esteemed honourable. After the execution of the treaty, Gen. Gates drew together the force that had surrounded my po- sition, and I had the consolation to have as many witnesses as I have men under my command, of its amounting to the numbers mentioned above. During the events stated above, an attempt was made against Ticonderoga by an army as- sembled under Major General Lincoln, who found means to march with a considerable Corps from Hubberton undiscovered, while another column of his force passed the mountains between Skenes- borough and Lake George; and on the morn- ing of the 18th of September, a sudden and ge- neral attack was made upon the carrying place at Lake George, Sugar- hill, Ticonderoga, and Mount Independance. The sea officer command- ing the armed sloop stationed to defend the car- rying as also some of the officers com- manding at the ports at the Sugar- hill and at the portage were surprized, and a considerable part of four companies of the 53d regiment were made prisoners; a block house commanded by Lieu- tenant Lord of the 5 3d regiment was the only poll on that side that had time to make use of their arms, and they made a brave defence till can- non taken from the suprized vessel was brought against them.- After stating and lamenting so fatal a want of vigilance, I have to inform your Lordship of the satisfactory events which followed. The enemy having twice summoned Brigadier General Powell, and received such anwers as became a gallant officer entrusted with so impor- tant a post; and having tried during the course uf days several attacks, and being repulsed in all, retreated without having done any con- siderable damage. Brigadier General Powell, from whose report to me I extract this relation, gives great com- mendations to the regiment of Prince Frederick and the other troops stationed at Mount Indc- pendence. The Brigadier also mentions with great applause the behaviour of Captain Taylor of the 21st regiment, who was accidentally there on his road to the army from the hospital, and Lieutenant Beecroft of the 24th regiment, who, with the artificers in arms, defended an impor- tant battery. On the 24th of September the enemy enabled bv the capture of the gun boats and batteaux which they had made after the surprize of the sloop to enbark upon Lake George, attacked Diamond Island in two divisions. Captain Aubrey and two companies of the 47th regiment had been posted at that island from the time the army passed the Hudson's river, as a better situation for the security of the stores at the South end of Lake George, than Fort George, which is on the continent, and not tenable against artillery and numbers. The enemy were repulsed by Captain Aubrey with great loss, and pursued by the gun boats under his command to the east shore, where two of their principal vessels were retaken, together with all the cannon ; they had just time to set fire to the other batteaux, and retreated over ths mountains. I beg leave to refer your Lordship for further particulars to my Aid de Camp Lord Petersham ; and I humbly take occasion to recommend to his Majesty's notice that Nobleman, as one endued with qualities to do important services to his country in every station to which his birth may lead. In this late campaign in particular his be- haviour has been such as to entitle him to the fullest applause, and I am confident his merit will be thought a sufficient ground for preferment, though deprived of the eclat and sort of claim which generally attends the delivery of fortunate dispatches. I have only to add, my Lord, a general report of the killed and wounded. I do not give it as correct; the hurry of the time and the separation of the corps, having rendered it impossible to make it so. The British officers have bled profusely and most honourably ; all who have fallen were valuable, but the extensive merits which marked the publick and private cha- racter of Brigadier General Fraser will long remain upon the memory of the army, and make his loss a subject of particular regret. Those who remain unwounded have been equally forward ; and the general officers, from the mode of fighting, have been more exposed than in other services. An. o > g the rest I have had my escapes. It depends upon the sentence his Majesty shall pass upon my conduct; upon the judgment of my profession, and of the impartial and respectable parts of my country, whether I am to esteem them blessings or misfortunes. ( I have the honour to be, & c. J. BURGOYNE. P. S. The above is an exaCt duplicate of the dispatch sent by Lord Petersham. Captain Craig, of the 47th regiment, who has the charge of it, is an officer cf great merit; and is particularly worthy of notice for having served with unabated zeal and aCtivity through this laborious campaign, notwithstanding a wound through his arm, which he received at Hubberton. No. I. October 13, 1777. LIEUTENANT General Burgoyne is de- sirous of sending a Field- Officcr, with a message to Major- General Gates, upon a matter of high moment to both armies. He requests to be in- formed at what hour General Gates will receive him to- morrow morning. ,, Major- General Gates. ANSWER. MAJOR- General Gates will receive a Field Officer from Lieutenant- General Burgoyne at the advanced post of the army of the United States, at ten o'clock to- morrow morning, from whence he will be conducted to Head Quar- ters Camp at Saratoga, 9 o'clock, P. M. October 13, 1777. Lieutenant General Burgoyne. No II. Major Kingston delivered tbe following message to Major- General Gates, October 14, 1777. AFTER having fought you twice, Lieute- nant- General Burgoyne has waited some days, in his present position, determined to try a third conflict against any force you could bring to at- tack him. He is apprized of the superiority of your num- bers, and the disposition of your troops to im- pede his supplies, and render his retreat a scene of carnage on both sides. In this situation he is impelled by humanity, and thinks himself justi- fied by established principles and precedents of State, and of war, to spare the lives of brave men upon honourable terms: Should Major General Gates be inclined to treat upon that idea, General Burgoyne would propose a cessation of arms during the time necessary to commnnicate the preliminary terms by which, in any extre- mity, he, and his army, mean to abide. No III. Major General Gates's proposals ; together with Lieutenant- General Burgoyne's answers. I. GENERAL Burgoyne's army being ex- ceedingly reduced by repeated defeats, by deser- sion, sickness, & c. their provisions exhausted, their military horses, tents and baggage, taken or destroyed, their retreat cut off, and their camp invested, they can only be allowed to sur- render prisoners of war. Answer. Lieutenant- General Burgoyne's army, however reduced, will never admit that their re- treat is cut off, while they have arms in their hands. II. The officers and soldiers may keep the baggage belonging to them. The Generals of the United Stales never permit individuals to be pillaged. III. The troops under his Excellency General Burgoyne will be conducted by the most conveni- ent route to New England, marching by easy marches, and sufficiently provided for by the way. Answer. This article is answered by General Burgoyne's first propolal, which is here annexed. IV. The officers will be admitted 0n parole; may wear their side arms, and will be treated with the liberality customary in Europe, so long as they, by proper behaviour, continue to de- serve it; but those who are apprehended having broke their parole, as some British Officers have done, must expeCt to be close confined. Answer. There being no officer in this army under, or capable of being under, the descrip- tion of breaking parole, this article needs no an- swer. V. All public stores, artillery, arms, ammu- nition, carriages, horses, & c. & c. must be deli- vered to Commissaries appointed to receive them. Answer. All public stores may be delivered, arms excepted. VI. These terms being agreed to and signed, the troops under his Excellency General Bur- goyne's command may be drawn up in their en campments, where they will be ordered to ground their arms, and may thereupon be marched to the river side, to be passed over in their- way towards Bennington. Answer. This article inadmissible in any ex- tremity. Sooner than this army will consent to ground their arms in their encampment, they will rush on the enemy determined to take no quarter. VII. A cessation of arms to continue till sunset, to receive Generil Burgoyne's answer. ( Signed) Horatio Gates. Camp at Saratoga, Oct. 14, 1777. No IV, MAJOR Kingston met the Adjutant- General ef Major- General Gates's army, OCtober, the 14th at sun set, and delivered the following mes- sage : If General Gates does not mean to recede from the 6th article, the treaty ends at once. The army will to a man proceed to any aCt of desperation, rather than submit to that article. The cessation of arms ends this evening. No V. Lieutenant General Burgoyne's Proposals, together with Major- General Gates's Answers THE annexed answers being given to Major- General Gaies's proposals, it remains for Lieute- nant- General Burgoyne, and the army under his command, to state tlie following preliminary ar- ticles on their part; I. The troops to march out of their camp with the honours of war, and the artillery of the in- trenchments, which will be left as hereafter may be regulated. I. The troops to march out of their camp with the honours of war, and the artillery of the in- trenchments to the verge of the river where the old Fort stood, where their arms and artillery must be left. II. A free passage to be granted to this army to Great Britain, upon condition of not serving again in North America during the present con- test ; and a proper Port to be assigned for the entry of transports to receive the troops whenever General Howe shall so order. II. Agreed to for the Port of Boston. III. Should any cartel take place by which this army or any part of it may be exchanged, the foregoing article to be void as far as such exchange shall be made. III. Agreed. IV. All officers to retain their carriages, bat- horses, and other cattle ; and no baggage to be molested or searched, the Lieutenant- General giving his honour, that there are no public stores secreted therein. Major General Gates will of course take the necessary measures for the security cf this article. IV. Agreed. V. Upon the march the officers are not to be separated from the men ; and in quarters the of- ficers shall be lodged according to rank; and are not to be hindered from assembling their men for roll calling, and other necessary purposes of re- gularity. V. Agreed to, as far as circumstances will admit. VI. There are various corps in this army com- posed of sailors, batteau men, artificers, drivers, in- dependent companies, and followers of the army ; and it is expeCted that those persons of whatever country shall be included in the fullest sense and utmost extent of the above articles ; and compre- hended in every respeCt as British subjeCts. VI. Agreed to in the fullest extent. VII. All Canadians, and persons belonging to the Establishment in Canada, to be permitted to return there. VII. Agreed. VIII. Passports to be immediately granted for three officers, not exceeding the rank of Cap- tain, who shall be appointed by General Burgoyne to carry dispatches to Sir William Howe, Sir Guy Carleton, and to Great Britain by the way of New York, and the public faith to be engaged, that these dispatches are not to be opened. VIII. Agreed. IX. The foregoing articles are to be considered only as preliminaries for framing a treaty, in the course of which others may arise to be considered by both parties ; for which purpose it is proposed that two officers of each army shall meet and report their deliberations to their respeCtive Ge- nerals. IX. This capitulation to be finished by two o'clock this day, and the troops match from their encampment at five, and be in readiness to move towards Boston to morrow morning; X. Lieutenant- General Burgoyne will send his Deputy Adjutant General to receive Major Ge- neral Gates's answer to- morrow morning at ten o'clock. X. Complied with. ( Signed) Horatio Gates. Saratoga, October 15, 1777. No. VI. THE eight first preliminary articles of Lieu- tenant- Geaeral Burgoyne's proposals, and the id, 3d, and 4th of those of Major General Gates of yesterday being agreed to, the founda- tion of the proposed treaty is out of dispute ; but the several subordinate articles and regulations necessarily springing from these preliminaries, and requiring explanation and precision between the parties, before a definitive treaty can be safely executed, a longer time than that mentioned by General Gates in his answer to the 9th article becomes indispensably necessary. Lieutenant- Ge neral Burgoyne is willing to appoint two officers immediately 10 meet two others from Major- Ge- neral Gates, to propound, discuss, and settle those subordinate articles, in order that the treaty in due form may be executed as soon as possible ( Signed) John Burgoyne Camp at Saratoga, Oct. 15, 1777. Major Kingston has authority to settle the place for a meeting of the officers proposed. Settled by Major Kingston on the ground where Mr. Schuyler's house stood. No. VII. IN the course of the night Lieutenant- General Burgoyne has received intelligence that a consi- derable force has been detached from the army under the command of Major General Gates during the course of the negociations of the treaty de- pending between them ; Lieutenant- General Bur- goyne conceives this, if true, to be not only a vio- lation of the cessation of arms, but subversive of the principles on which the treaty originated, viz. a great superiority of numbers in General Gates's army ; Lieutenant General Burgoyne therefore re- quires that two Officers on his part be permitted to fee that the strength of the forces now opposed to him is such as will convince him that no such detachments have been made ; and that the same principles of superiority, on which the treaty first began, still exists, 16th October. No. VIII. Articles of Convention between Lieutenant- General Burgoyne and Major- General Gates. THE troops under Lieutenant- General Bur- goyne to march out of their camp with the honours of war, and the artillary of the intrench- ments to the verge of the river, where the Old Fort stood, where the arms and artillery are to be left. The arms to be piled by word cf command from their own officers. A free passage to te granted to the army under Lieutenant- General Burgoyne to Great- Britain, on condition of not serving again in North Ame- rica during the present contest ; and the port of Boston is assigned for the entry of transports to receive the troops whenever General Howe shall so order. III. Should any cartel take place, by which the army. under General Burgoyne, or any part of it, may be exchanged, the foregoing article to be void, as far as such exchange shall be made. IV. The army under Lieutenant- General Burgoyne to march to MassachusettS Bay, by the easiest, most expeditious, and convenient route; a » d to be quartered in, near, or as convenient as possi- ble to Boston, that the march of the troops may not be delayed when transports arrive to receive them. V. The troops to be supplied on their march, and during their being in quarters, with provisions, by Major General Gates's orders, at the same rate of rations as the troops of his own army; and, if possible, the officers horses and cattle are to be supplied with forage at the usual rates. vI. All officers to retain their carriages, but horses, and other cattle, and no baggage to be molested or searchcd, Lieutenant- General Burgoyne giv- ing his honour, that there are no public stores se- creted therein. Major General Gates will of course take the necessary measures for the due performance of this article. Should any carriages be wanted during the march, for the transporta- tion of officers baggage, they are, if possible, to be supplied by the country at the usual rates. VII. Upon the march, and during the time the army shall remain in quarters in the Massachusetts Bay, the officers are not, as far as circumstances will admit, to be separated from their men. The officers are to be quartered according to their rank, and are not to be hindered from assembling their men for roll callings, and other necessary pur- poses of regularity. VIII. All corps whatever of General Burgoyne's army, whether composed of failors, batteaumen, artifi- cers, drivers, independent companies, and fol- lowers of the army, of whatever country, shall be included in the fullest sense and utmost extent of the above articles, and comprehended in every respeCt as British subjeCts. IX. All Canadians and persons belonging to the Canadian establishment, consisting of sailors, bat- teaumen, artificers, drivers, independent compa nies, and many other followers ot the army, who come under no particular description, are to be permitted to return there; they are to be con- ducted immediately by the shortest route to the first British post on Lake George, are to be sup plied with provisions in the same manner as the other troops, and are to be bound by the same condition of not serving during the present con- test in North America. X. Passports to be immediately granted for three officers, not exceeding the rank of Captains, who shall be appointed by Lieutenant- General Bur- goyne to carry dispatches to Sir William Howe, Sir Guy Carleton, and to Great Britain, by the way of New York ; and Major General Gates en gages the public faith, that these dispatches shall not be opened. These officers are to set out im- mediately after receiving their dispatches, and are to travel the shortest route, and in the most expe- ditious manner. XL During the stay of the troops in the Massachu- setts Bay, the officers are to be admitted on pa- role, and are to be permitted to wear their side arms. XII. Should the army under Lieutenant- General Burgoyne, find it necessary to send for their cloathing and other baggage from Canada, they are to be permitted to do it in the most .... manner, and the necessary passports granted for that purpose. XIII. These articles are to be mutually signed and exchanged to- morrow morning at nine o'clock ; and the troops under Lieutenant- General Bur- goyne, are to march out of their intrenchments at three o'clock in the afternoon. Camp at Saratoga, Oct. 16, 1777. HORATIO GATES, Major General ( True Copy) To prevent any doubts that might arise from Lieutenant- General Burgoyne's name not being mentioned in the above treaty, Major General Gates hereby declares, that he is understood to be comprehended in it as fully as if his name had been specifically mentioned. Horatio Gates No. IX. Minutes of a Council of War, held on the Heights of Saratoga, October12th, 1777. PRESENT Lieut. Gen. Burgoyne, Major Gen Phillips, Major Gen. Reidesel, Brigad. Gen. Hamilton. THE Lieutenant General states to the coun- cil the present situation of affairs. The enemy in force, according to the best in- telligence he can obtain, to the amount of up- wards of fourteen thousand men, and a conside- rable quantity of artillery, are on this side the FishKill, and threaten an attack. On the other side the Hudson's River, between this army and Fort Edward, is another of the enemy, the numbers Unknown ; but one corps, which there has been an opportunity of observing, is reported to be about fifteen hundred men. They have likewise cannon on the other side the Hudson's River, and they have a bridge below Saratoga church, by which the two armies can communicate, The batteaux of the army have been destroyed and no means appear of making a bridge oVer the Hudson's River, were it even practicable from the position of the enemy. 1. « The only means of retreat, therefore, are by the Ford at Fort Edward, or taking the mountains in order to pass the river higher up by rafts, or by another ford which is reported to be practicable with difficulty, or by keeping the mountains, to pass the head of Hudson's River, and continue to the Westward of Lake George all the way to Ti- conderoga ; it is true, this last passage was never made but by Indians or very small bodies of men. In order to pass cannon or any Wheel carriages' from hence to Fort Fdward, some bridges must be repaired under fire of the enemy from the opposite side of the river; and the principal bridge will be a work of fourteen or fifteen hours; there is n0 good position for the army to take to sustain that work, and, if there were, the time stated as ne- cessary would give the enemy on the other side the Hudson's River an opportunity to take post on the strong ground above Port Edward, or to dispute the ford while General Gates's army followed in the rear. The intelligence from the lower part of Hudson's River is founded upon the concurrent reports of prisoners and deserters, who say it was the news in the enemy's camp; that fort Montgomery . was taken; and one man, a friend to government; who arrived yesterday, mentions some parti- culars of the manner in which it was taken. The provisions of the army may hold out to the 20th ; there is neither rum nor spruce beer. Having committed this state of facts to the con - sideration of the council, the General requests their sentiments on the following propositions: ift. To wait in the present position an attack from the enemy, or the chance of favourable events. 2d. To attack the enemy: 3d. To retreat repairing the bridges as the army moves for the artillery, in order to force the passage of the ford. 4th. To retreat by night, leaving the artil- lery and the baggage; and should it be found im- practicable to force the passage with musquetry to attempt the upper ford, or the passage round Lake George. . 5th. In case the enemy, by extending to their Left, leave their rear open, to march rapidly for Albany. Upon the first proposition resolved, That the situation would grow worse by delay, that the provision NOW in store not more than sufficient for for the retreat should impediments intervene, or a circuit of country become necessary; and as the enemy did not attack when the ground was un- fortified, it is not probable they will do it now, as they have a better game to play. The second unadvisable and desperate, there being no possibility of reconnoitring the enemy's position, and his great superiority of numbers known. The third impracticable. The fifth thought worthy of consideration by the Lieutenant General, Major General Phillips, and Brigadier General Hamilton; but the post- tion of the enemy yet gives no open for its Resolved, that the fourth proposition is the only resource, and that to effect it, the utmost secrecy and silence is to be observed ; and the troops are to be put in motion from the right in the still part of the night, without any change in the disposition. N. B. It depended upon the delivery of six days provision in due time, and upon the return of scouts, who had been sent forward, to exa- mine by what route the army could probably move the first four miles undiscovered, whether the plan should take place on that day, or on the morrow. The scouts on their return reported, that the enemy's position on the right was such, and they had so many small parties out, that it would be impossible t0 move without our march being im- mediately discovered. Minutes and proceedings of a Council of War, con- sisting of all the General Officers and Field Of- ficers, and Captains commanding Corps, on the Heights of Saratoga, October 13, 1777. The Lieutenant- General having explained the situation of affairs, as in the preceding council, with the additional intelligence, that the enemy was intrenched at the fords of Fort Edward, and likewise occupied the strong pofition on the Pine Plains between Fort George and Fort Edward, expressed his readiness to undertake at their head any enterprize of difficulty or hazard that should appear to them within the compass of their strength and spirit: He added that he had reason to believe a capitulation had been in the con- templation of some, perhaps of all, who knew the real situation of things ; that, upon a circum- stance of such consequence to national and perso- nal honour, he thought it a duty to his country, and to himself, to extend his council beyond the usual limits; that the assembly present might justly be esteemed a full representation of the army ; and that he should think himself unjusti- fiable in taking any step in so serious a matter without such a concurrence of sentiments a3 should make a treaty the act of the army, as well as that of the General. The first question therefore he desired them to decide was, Whether an army of 3500 fighting men, and well provided with artillery, were justifiable upon the principles of national dignity and military honour, in capitulating in any pos- sible situation ? Resolved, nem con. In the affirmative, Question z. Is the present situation of the nature? Resolved, nem. con. That the present situa- tion justifies a capitulation upon honourable terms. The Lieutenant General then drew up the message, marked No. 2, in the paper, relative to the negociation, and laid it before the council, It was unanimously approved, and upon that foundation the treaty opened, Major Kingston having delivered the marked No. 2, returned with the proposals marked No. 3, and the council of war being assembled again, the Lieutenant- General laid them before it, when it was resolved unani- mously to reject the 6th article, and not to admit it in any extremity whatever. The Lieutenant- General then laid before the counciL the answers to Major General Gates's proposals, as marked in the same paper, together with his own preliminary proposals, marked No. 4, which wees unanimously approved of. October 15. The council being assembled again Major- General Gates's answers to Lieute- nant- General Burgoyne proposals, were laid be- fore them whereupon it was resolved, that they were satisfactory, and a sufficient ground for pro- ceeding TO a definitive treaty. Report of the killed, wounded, - and prisoners of the British troops till exact returns can be collected) under the command of Lieutenant- General Bur- goyne, to October 12, 1 Brigadier- General, 1 major, z captains, 15 lieutenants, 4 ensigns, ic serjeants, 5 drum- mers, 315 rank and file, killed. 2 Lieutenant colonels, 5 majors, 17 captains, 18 lieutenants, 4 ensigns, 1 adjutant, 38 serjeants, 4 drummers, 715 rank and file, wounded. 2. Majors, 2 captains, 3 lieutenants, 2 ensigns, 1 surgeon, 4 serjeants, 2 drummers, 43 rank and file, prisoners. Names of the staff" officers killed, wounded, and pri- soners. Brigadier- General Fraser, Sir Francis Clarke, aid de camp to lieutenant- general Burgoyne, killed. Captain Green, of the 31st regiment, aid de camp to Major General Phillips, captain Blomfield of the royal artillery, major of brigade to major general Phillips, wounded. Captain Money of the 9th regiment, deputy quar- ter- master general, prisoner. Name of officers killed, wounded, and missing. Major Grant of the 24th regiment, killed. Captains Wight of the 53d, Jones, royal artil- lery, killed. Lieutenants Westrop and Wright, 9th regiment, Lucas, Cooke, Obins, 20th ditto, Curric, Mackenzie, Robertson, Turnbull, 21st ditto, Douglass, 29th ditto, Reynal, Harvey, Stuart, _ 62d ditto, Haggart, of the marines, Cleyland, second lieutenant royal artillery, killed. Ensigns Taylor, Phillips, Young, 62d ditto/ killed. Adjutant Fitzgerald, 62d ditto, killed. Lieutenant colonels Lynd, of the 20th regiment. Anstruther, 62d ditto, wounded in two different actions. Majors Forbes, 9th ditto, Acland, 20th ditto, Agnew, 24th ditto. Earl of Belcarres, 53d ditto, Harnage, 62d ditto, wounded in two different actions. Captains Montgomery, Swetenham, Stapylton, ( since dead of his wounds) 9th ditto, Weyms, Dowling, Stanley, Farquire, 20th ditto, Strangways, 24th ditto, Ramsey, 21st ditto, Blake, 24th ditto, Harris, Ross, 34th ditto, Craig, 47th ditto, Shrimpton, Bunbury, 6id ditto, wounded. Lieutenants, Battersby, light infantry, 29th ditto Fisherton, grenadiers 21st ditto, Richardson, grenadiers 34th ditto ( wounded in two diffe- rent actions) Rowe, Stavely, Murray, Prince, 9th ditto, Dowling, 29th, doing duty with the 20th ditto, Doyle, 24th ditto, Rutherford, 21st ditto, Williams, Steel, 29th ditto, Richardson, 34th ditto, Haughton, Cullan, 53d ditto, Jones, 60th ditto, Smith, Howarth, royal artillery, wounded. Ensigns Connel, 20th ditto, Blake, Hcrvey, 62d ditto, Baron de Salons 9th ditto, wounded. Adjutant Fielding, 9th ditto, wounded. Majors Acland, commanding the grenadiers Williams, royal artillery, prisoners. Captains Montgomery, Money, 9th ditto, pri soners. Lieutenants Johnston, York, 29th ditto, Ho- warth, royal artillery, prisoners. Ensigns D'Antrach, Naylor, 62d ditto, priso- ners. Surgeon Shelly, 9th ditto, prisoner. J. BURGOYNE, Lieutenant- Gereral. N. B. From the 12th, the loss by killed, pri- soners, and desertion, was very considerable. Thursday morning came on before the Earl of Mansfield and a special jury, at Guildhall, Lon- don, the third trial of the same question, which to the cornfactors in general is of very important na- ture, and the decision must materially affect those gentlemen in their speculative conccrns. The right beyond themselves, we may already conclude that the ultimatum of this long depending affair will be, an overthrow by the Court of the effect of the former verdicts, unless, by the force of ora- tory, the Court would be led to think differently than at present. The lady of a certain Alderman devotes 500L a year for linen, Sec. to poor housekeepers, and besides, employs many hands to work it up. And though the American war has considerably re- duced the fortune of her husband, they will not suffer a shilling to be deducted from the annual stipend. We are happy to say that this worthy couple are not likely to be compelled to make aa in- voluntary surrender of their humane, laudable plan : their fortune, tho' not so great as it has been, remains Very ample to rescue from sinking into ruin mAny fatherless children and widows, and at the same time to preserve with proper dig- nity the respectable station of a magistrate and a representative of this great city in Parliament. On Wednesday last, the following hand bill was distributed through the town of Liverpool, by order of the Mayor. " Liverpool, 10th December, 1777. GENTLEMEN, " The late accounts from America, of the un- fortunate event of war, which has attended one part of his Majesty's arms there, call upon me as Chief Magistrate of this town, and every loyal subject, to contribute our endeavours to the sup- port of our beloved Sovereign, our happy consti- tution, the honour of his Majesty's arms, the trade and welfare of these kingdoms in general, and of this town and neighbourhood in particular. And as his Majesty's good friends, in and about a neighbouring great town, have set us a most laudable example, by carrying on a subscrip- tion for raising a regiment for his Majesty's ser- vice— In hopes that this loyal and great commer- cial place, and its neighbourhood, will keep pace with them in duty to the King, in effort's for the fecurity and prosperity of these realms, and for the preservation of our commerce, I beg your attendance in the hall, within the Ex- change of this town, to- morrow at twelve o'clock at noon, to consult upon the mode of best testify- ing how much we have these moat important con- siderations at heart. I am, Gentlemen, Your most humble servant, THOMAS BIRCH, Mayor." be sent to reinforce the Brest squadron, from whence they are to sail, in order to cruize during the winter on the coast of Britanny, ' LONDON. The Cabinet are much divided in their opi- nion. Some of them are for carrying on the war with more vigour than ever, otherwise America and the Well India Islands will be lost to Great Britain. Another part of the Cabinet say, that Britain has neither men nor money to carry on the war longer, even in the way. it has been carried on ; they think it would be therefore' folly to persist in the present measures, which will only exhaust Great Britain, without the least prospect of success. This part of the Cabinet are for withdrawing the troops, and making A foederal alliance with America, or if the war is carried on, to do it by sea only. Lord Chatham is now in his 72d year ; and though in this advanced period of life, bating the gout, which is constitutional in him, he enjoys as good a state of health as he has these 20 years past, owing to a life, which he has from his youth upwards, regulated by temperance and exercise. His mind, consequently unenervated, now feels all the vigour of middle age, supported by long experience, and a profound practical knowledge of the constitution of this country. The embarkation of the German troops is now settled; they are to return up the Rhine, and go on board the transports at Bremer Leke. The Anson cutter has taken a very valuable prize smuggler from Cherbourg, and carried her into Dover. The Sally, Trotter, from Newfoundland, which was taken by the Provincials, is retaken, and carried into Quebec. The Endeavour, Cape. Grant, from Guada- loupe to South Carolina, with bale goods, is re- taken, and carried into Quebec. The Polly, Alward, from Newfoundland to Dominica, has been taken by an American pri- vateer, and retaken by a man of war; and is since arrived at Grenada. There is now in a garden belonging to Mrs. Selby, of Stanton, ripe white currants, and a green cherry set without the help of a hot wall or any cover. The fracas concerning Lord Suffolk, has, within these few days, taken a new turn. It is true that Marechal Count T. sent his Lordship the challenge ; but the matter is now taken up in a more serious way. The College of Marechals of France, represented the matter to the Prince de Montberry, Minister of the War Department of France. In this representation they say, the words of Lord Suffolk are a national insult, an insult upon the French nation at large , had the words fallen from, a private gentleman, they would not have shewn the least regard to them ; but coming from one of the King's Ministers so- lemnly and formally delivered, they cannot be be silent under so heinous an affront, & c. The French Minister wrote to . Lord Suffolk about it. Lord Suffolk answered him. The answer being a kind of apology, or explanation, was laid before the College of Marechals. they would not ac- cept of it. Upon which a second letter was sent from France; and Lord North has sent the last answer. The affair is now become , a national business ; and has no reference to the first paper from Marechal Count T. but lies between Mi- nister and Minister. . . action was brought by the plaintiff Mr. Cock- sedge, to recover back a sum of money, paid to the defendant, Mr. Fanshaw, city collector, un- der his claim of a farthing for every quarter of corn consigned to the plaintiff who is a freeman, therefore, from any dues for his and exempt, own commodities. Upon the two former causes between these parties, the Juries, in direct oppo- sition to the directions of the noble Judge, gave a verdict in favour of the plaintiff, fo that the corn- factors considered themselves entitled under this extensive privilege set up, to protect from the city's claim, the corn not only of freemen, but also of aliens. After a deal of dry and wearisome investigation of evidence. Mr. Dunning and the Recorder for the corporation, offered to admit the whole circumstances of the case, and to refer the simplc question " Whether admitting all the evi- dence meant to be adduced, the plaintiff ought in point of law to pay a farthing for each quarter under consignition," to a solemn argument in_ the Court of King's Bench? Mr. Wallace, council for the plaintiff consented to the proposal, and as the-- Judge's have already declared their opinion, that the free corn factors cannot extend the At the meeting on Wednesday at the King's arms in Cornhill for the relief of the distressed American prisoners, a person, who had the ap- pearance of a labouring man or waterman, threw down two half- crowns, leaving his blessing on the meeting, and retired. This had a pleasing effect on the company, and his mite was entered next to the Chairman's benefaction in the list. The Earls of Abingdon and Shelburne, with Sir George Savile, gave 1ool, each ; several fifty pounds and twenty pounds were also given ; and in about three quarters of an hour upwards of 800I. was subscribed. The Spy privateer belonging to Jamaica, is taken by an American privateer; who set her crew on shore near Blue- fields, after which she carried off the vessel. Press warrants are to be immediately issued, to take exery sailor that can be met with, and from all protection whatever, as Government are de- j termined to use every exertion to man a consider- able fleet to act against America. The Sally, Trueman, from South Carolina to Nautz, with rice, indigo, furs, & c. is taken and carried into Londonderry. STORY of a LOUSE . THERE is nothing so abject or mean in its nature, but has sometimes, by accident, the power to do good or harm. Dr. Henry Sacheverell was a Divine of mean abilities, but, by the strength of his lungs, and the vehemence of his action, he became a popu- lar prcacher. This man was so formidable as to overthrow the Whig interest, by the force of a fanatical sermon, and contributed, perhaps, more than any body, to the establishment of a Tory Ministry, under the Lords Oxford and Bo- linbroke. These great men, after their advancement to power, despised the mean instrument that had raised them to it. However, when the Rector- ship of St. Andrew's became vacant, Sacheverell thought his services deserved so good a benefice, and applied to Swift for his interest; he obtained it. The Dean, in a visit he paid to Lord Bolin- broke, pleaded the merits of Sacheverell, and insisted that he had a preferable right to the Rec- torship to any other person. The Minister seem- ed surprized that the Dean should speak for so insignificant a fellow as the Preacher. Swift owned that Sacheverell was as worthless as Bo- lingbroke had described him, but still, the Mi- nistry, he said, were under such obligations to him, that they ought to prefer him. " My Lord, give me leave, said Swift, to tell you a case in point. In the great sea fight off La Hogue, a Scotchman and an Englishman were sitting together, a cannon ball took off the Eng- lishman's head ; the Scotchman happened to be stooping down and was pulling a louse out of his head, and by that means saved his life. The fellow was going to dispatch his troublesome companion, but, upon reflection, he said, Naw, mon, the deel a fit, I sall noe kill you, een gang your waws bock into my heed, and feed as long as ye wull.— Now, my Lord, to the Ap- plication.— There needs no more to be said, says Bolingbroke, the louse shall be taken care of, he shall have St. Andrew's parish to feed upon. Genoa, Nov. 19. They write from Toulon, that they are arming with tke utmost expedition three ships of the line, that six others are to • LONDON. There are certain accounts by the private let- ters from General Burgoyne's army, when at Al- bany, in their way to Boston, " That General Vaughan had hurried back to New York." It is probable, that he was aware of his conduct at Eso- pus would not have entitled him to much lenity from the Americans; therefore, he did well to get to New York as fast as he could. All the private letters from General Burgoyne's army, speak in the highest terms of the genero- sity and humanity of the Americans, particularly General Burgoyne's own letter to the Earl or Derby, which was on Tuesday shewn by his Lordship to several gentlemen, wherein the Ge- neral particularly mentions one circumstance, that exceeds all that he had ever seen or read of. This was, when the British soldiers had marched out of their camp, according to the Ar- ticles of Capitulation, to a fixed place, where they were to pile their arms, not one of the Ame- rican troops were to be seen. General Gates had ordered his whole army out of sight, that not one of them should be spectators of the shame of the British troops, nor offer the smallest insult to the vanquished. This refined delicacy, and most soldier like politeness, reflects the greatest honour upon America, and is spoken of by all our offi- cers in the highest terms of admiration. There never was an instance in which the hu- manity and benevolence of this country were so seriously called upon, as in the case of the poor American prisoners in England. After what was done for the French prisoners last war, it cannot be doubted, the same kindness and charity will be shewn to the Americans. A little cloathing, bedding, and firing, at this inclement season, would again reflect everlasting honour on the hu- manity of this country. And after the mercy shewn by the Americans to General Burgoyne and his army, it is incumbent upon us to shew some return of favour to the prisoners in our hands. General Burgoyne and his troops were on the 27th of October at Northampton, which is 115 miles from Boston. It was expected they would reach Cambridge on the 5th of November. The President and Council of Massachusetts had de- termined, that they should not be cantoned nearer to Boston than at Cambridge, and in its neigh- bourhood. It is singular, that some of those gentlemen in Pr: General Burgoyne's army, who were the most violent against the Americans, have received the most extraordinary marks of their kindness and humanity, particularly. Sir Francis. ( not Sir James, as put by mistake in the Gazette) Clarke, He has left a legacy, to the servant maid of Ge- neral Gates, who attended him in his illness, arising from his wound, for her constant attend tion and tenderness to his unhappy situation. The same most kind regard was shewn to Major Ac- land, which he and his lady both mention, in terms that strongly testify the humanity and af- fection of the Americans. General Burgoyne sent Lord Petersham to Phi- ladelphia. There are no accounts from General Howe. Extract of a letter from an officer at Philadelphia, to his friend at Edinburgh, dated Oct. 27 ( two days later than Gen. Howe's last letter.) " 1 am happy to acquaint you, that I am safe here after much fatigue. At the battle of Bran- dy- wine, we had the most dreadful fire for one hour I ever saw. I heard nothing equal to it all last war in Germany. At last we gave the rebels the bayonet, which soon dispersed them ; and had it not been for the darkness of the night and our fatigue, they must have been totally routed. I was in this city when the rebels made their impudent attack on our army at German- Town. There was warm work; The greatest part of our army are encamped in the neighbour- hood of this city, and are now busy throwing up entrenchments. The rebel out- posts are only half a mile from our out- posts, and we expect a battle soon, We have no provision but what we get from the shipping twenty miles off, but we hope soon to destroy a fort the rebels have on the Delaware, clear the river, and get the shipping up to the town. What the ships have already done in the Delaware, and the obstructions they have removed, is really astonishing. The poor Hessians have suffered severely, after behaving most gal- lantly. " P. S. Within these two days, the' weather has become extremely cold, which is severe upon the troops, who are obliged to lie on the ground." An order of Council is daily expected to be issued, for embodying immediately eighteen re- giments of the militia of this kingdom, for gar- rison duty. , Whitehall, Jan. 18, 1778. The following letter from the Honourable Ge- neral Sir William Howe to Lord George Ger- maine, one of his Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, was this morning receives by the Earl Cornwallis, who arrived from Philadelphia in the Brilliant armed ship. Philadelphia, Dec. 13, 1777. My Lord, LORD Cornwallis having applied for leave of absence to attend his private business in Europe, I take this opportunity of sending my dispatches by his Lordship in the Brilliant armed ship. Since my last, the enemy being joined by up- wards of four thousand men, with Cannon, from the northern army, assembled their whole force in a strong camp at White Marsh, covered in part by Sandy Run, fourteen miles distant from hence, with their right to Wissahichon Creek. Upon a presumption that a forward move might tempt the enemy, after receiving such reinforcement, to give battle for the recovery of this place, or that a vulnerable part might be found to admit of an attack upon their camp, the army marched on the night of the 4th in- stant, the van commanded by Lieutenant- Gene- ral Earl Cornwallis, the main body by Liente- nant- General Knyphausen, and on the next morn- ing took post upon Chesnut- hill, in front of the enemy's right. The enemy soon after detached a corps of one thousand men to attack the light infantry posted in front under the command of Lieutenant- Colonel Abercromby ; the conse- quence of which was, that upon the first onset of the 2d battalion of light infantry, and part of the 1st, they were instantly defeated, with the loss of between thirty and forty men killed and wounded, and a Brigadier made prisoner. Not judging it advisable to attack the ene- my's right, the army, having remained in the same position during the 6ch, marched at one o'clock in the morning of the 7th, the van and ; main body commanded as before, to take post Edge Hill, one mile distant fram the enec'^' left. A corps of one thousand men, com of riflemen, and other troops from the en Northern army, were found by the van posted on this hill with cannon. Lord wallis immediately attacked with the 1st fantry, supported by the 33d regiment, and de- feated this body, with a considerable loss of of- ficers and men, their cannon narrowly escaping. The thickness of the wood where the rebels were posted concealing them from the view of the light infantry, occasioned the loss of one officer killed,: three wounded, and- between 20 and 30 men killed and wounded, from their first fire. Major General . Grey, with his brigade, light infantry of the guards, Queen's Rangers, Hessian and Anspach chasseurs took post upon the left, in front of the enemy's centre. A detachment to harrass this corps was immediately routed by the General's advanced guard, composed of his light troops, with a loss to the enemy of fifty men killed and wounded. Your Lordship will see, by the inclosed return, the loss sustained by the King's troops in the above mentioned attacks. The enemy's camp being as strong on their, centre and left; as upon the right, their seeming determination to hold this position, and unwil- ling to expose the troops longer to the weather in this inclement season, without tents Or baggage of any kind for officers or men, I returned on the 8th to this place.— The rear guard, under the command of Lord Cornwallis, quitted Edge- hill on the right, about four o'clock in the afternoon,
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